Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are one of the most widespread invasive freshwater animals in the world. They cause economic harm in North America of over one billion dollars per year. Their huge populations attach to hard surfaces, clog intake pipes for water treatment and power generating plants, encrust boat motors and hulls, may greatly reduce lakefront property values, and their sharp shells cut swimmer’s feet. Ecologically, they filter enormous quantities of microscopic algae and alter energy flow through aquatic ecosystems — with potentially large impacts on fish populations — and they smother and cause extinctions of native bivalve mollusks.
At MAISRC, researchers are using population genetic and genomic markers to study spread throughout Minnesota, estimating the contribution of veliger larvae in residual water to the risk of spread from high-traffic lakes, developing quantitative molecular tests for the early detection of larvae in lakes, pilot-studying the effectiveness of pesticide treatments in lakes, and characterizing the microbiota in and around zebra mussels to determine if it contains potential biocontrols. Click here to download a factsheet about zebra mussels.
About zebra mussels
What they look like
Zebra mussels are ¼-1 ½ inch-long bivalve (2-shelled) molluscs. They evolved from ancestors similar to surf clams (used to make clam chowder) that invaded fresh waters in southern Russia. They have a D- or wedge-shaped shell, which is often marked by alternating brown and yellow bands in a zigzag pattern. They live on lake and river bottoms, rocks, aquatic plants, docks, lifts, and boats to which they attach using small dark fibers called "byssal threads." Viewed up-close underwater, two tiny siphons can be seen projecting into a narrow gap between the shell valves of each animal — these siphons are used to pump water for respiration and feeding.
Each mussel is either male or female, and they release eggs (500,000 or more per female per year) or sperm into the water. Fertilization yields a tiny (< 1/10th millimeter) larva called a veliger — found in very few other freshwater molluscs. Veligers feed on algae and grow for about 3 weeks, drifting in the plankton, during which time wind and currents can transport them over large distances. After this, they settle down and attach to the lake or river bottom, and after about 12-18 months, they grow to reproductive size.
Where they're found
Zebra mussels are native to large rivers and lakes draining into the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas of southwestern Russia and the Ukraine. Beginning in about 1800, they began spreading across western and northern Europe and most recently have reached inland waters in the British Isles, Spain, Portugal, and France. They appeared in North America in 1988, and in five years they spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and large rivers. In several Great Lakes (particularly Michigan and Erie) zebra mussels have been largely replaced by a related species — the quagga mussel (D. bugensis) — also from the Black Sea. Zebra mussels arrived in the Duluth Harbor in 1989 and the Mississippi River in 1993. As of 2015, they have been found in approximately 82 lakes and 12 rivers and streams in Minnesota.
How they spread
In the 19th century, zebra mussels spread throughout Europe in man-made canals, and in the late 20th century, on recreational watercraft and the nets of commercial fisherman. They were also spread to lakes in Poland and Belarus on the nets of commercial fisherman. In North America, barge traffic and (to unknown extent) larval dispersal were responsible for rapid initial spread throughout the Great Lakes, Mississippi, Ohio and Susquehanna Rivers. Spread to inland lakes has occurred by larvae transported down connected streams and waterways, and overland via mussels attached to vegetation and to surfaces of recreational boats, trailers, docks and lifts. Veliger larvae may also be transported in the "residual water" remaining inside boat compartments when trailered boats are moved between waterways.
If you're interested in monitoring your lake for zebra mussels, read these new statewide protocols for early detection monitoring for zebra mussels. You can use the monitoring protocols in this document to assist in early detection monitoring for zebra mussels in a lake where zebra mussels have not yet been found and to apply for treatment if zebra mussels are detected. Please stay tuned for detection and surveying training opportunities by University of Minnesota Extension in partnership with Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center and the Minnesota DNR. Learn more about the Minnesota DNR's pilot program to control zebra mussels.
Zebra mussel research at MAISRC
- Chanlan Chun
- Maxwell Kleinhans
- James Luoma
- Sophie Mallez
- Prince Mathai
- Michael McCartney
- Michael Sadowsky
- The McCartney lab has largely completed a study of the distances that zebra mussel larvae can spread down small rivers and streams, flowing out of infested lakes to downstream water bodies. They found that settlement of mussels occurs only a short distance down from the upstream lake. Small streams can carry large numbers of larvae down short (<10 miles) stretches of streams; over longer distances results depend on the lake/river — it was found that concentrations always drop, but not to zero in every case.
- The McCartney Lab is collaborating with the University of Minnesota Genomics Center to use population genetic and genomic markers to study spread throughout Minnesota. Highly variable genetic markers are being used to discriminate the sources of zebra mussels that infest inland lakes and rivers, and to thereby determine spread pathways. For example, we seek to find out whether the Mississippi River continues to infest inland lakes, and are working to gather direct evidence on how often "super-spreader" lakes like Mille Lacs and Minnetonka have been the origins of new lake infestations. These genetic results will be used to better target prevention.
- MAISRC is partnering with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' Watercraft Inspection Program and Tonka Bay Marina and the Brunswick Freshwater Boat Group to estimate the contribution of veliger larvae in residual water (water that is left after boats are drained) to reduce the risk of spread from high-traffic lakes.
- Developing quantitative molecular tests to complement current tests using microscopy for the early detection of larvae in lakes. One advantage of the molecular tests is that they can distinguish the larvae of zebra and quagga mussels, and therefore be used as an early warning system for surveillance of this emerging invasive mussel. This is not possible with current microscopy techniques.
- In collaboration with the Minnesota DNR and other organizations, including Minnehaha Creek Watershed District, MAISRC is pilot-studying the effectiveness of pesticide treatments in lakes. Along with the DNR, McCartney has developed a set of protocols to allow rigorous pre- and post-treatment evaluation and monitoring of treatment outcomes. This was developed as part of three recent open-water treatment efforts in Minnesota. McCartney plans to contribute ecological studies of the early stages of lake colonization, so as to help improve methods of counting and mapping zebra mussels before and after treatment—when they are at low density and difficult to count accurately.
- The Sadowsky Lab is characterizing the total microbial community associated with zebra mussels across time and space to see if any pathogenic relationships occur that could be developed into a biocontrol for this invasive invertebrate.
- Partnering with the Minnehaha Creek Watershed District to evaluate the toxicity of low-dose molluscicide treatments for zebra mussel veligers
- In partnership with the USGS, developing a set of rapid response protocols for treating localized zebra mussel infestations. The protocols, which will take water temperature into account for the first time, will provide managers with a critical support tool to swiftly select the correct molluscicide, determine the treatment concentration, and determine the treatment duration. The project will also help determine the probability of treatment success and estimate the treatment costs. Four molluscicides will be evaluated – Zequanox, Earthtec QZ, potassium chloride, and niclosamide.
- Field evaluation of toxicity of low-dose molluscicide treatments for zebra mussel veligers
- Genome sequencing and analysis to select target genes and strategies for genetic biocontrol
- Developing and testing a new molecular assay for early detection of zebra mussel veligers
- Creation of survey and monitoring protocols, and development of a research program for studying the effectiveness of zebra mussel pesticide treatment efforts
- Evaluating zebra mussel spread pathways and mechanisms in order to prevent further spread
- Estimating overland transport frequencies of invasive zebra mussels
- Metagenomic approaches to develop biological control strategies for aquatic invasive species
- Eco-epidemiological model to assess aquatic invasive species management
- Temperature-dependent toxicity of molluscicides to zebra mussels
- Genetic research fills out map of zebra mussels’ spread in Minnesota (MAISRC newsletter)
- First hurdle cleared in search for microbial biocontrol agents against AIS (MAISRC newsletter)
- Battle against aquatic invasive species on Lake Minnetonka continues (MAISRC in the news)
- Early detection tool developed for invasive mussels and their larvae (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Promising Zebra Mussel Treatment In Lake Minnetonka Targets Larvae (MAISRC in the News)
- Researchers test new approach to control zebra mussel population (MAISRC in the News)
- Researchers target zebra mussel larvae in new study (MAISRC in the News)
- New tactic in the fight against zebra mussels will be tested on Lake Minnetonka (MAISRC in the News)
- Developing rapid response protocols for zebra mussel treatment (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Changing up the fight against zebra mussels in Lake Minnetonka (MAISRC in the News)
- U research targets zebra mussels (MAISRC in the News)
- Hitchhikers: The unintentional transportation of zebra mussels (MAISRC in the News)
- Battling Aquatic Invasive Species (MAISRC in the News)
- Why Researchers Want to Look Inside Your Boat this Summer (MAISRC in the News)
- MAISRC launches research with Tonka Bay Marina, Brunswick Freshwater Boat Group, and DNR to help reduce zebra mussel spread (Press release)
- New findings affirm risk of zebra mussel spread through downstream drift (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Major milestone reached in effort to sequence the draft zebra mussel genome (MAISRC Newsletter)
- DNR begins zebra mussel pilot project treatment (MAISRC in the News)
- Christmas Lake holds off zebra mussel spread (MAISRC in the News)
- U of M lab mapping DNA of zebra mussels to slow spread (MAISRC in the News)
- Researchers sequence mussel DNA (MAISRC in the News)
- Researchers to try to map genome of zebra mussel (MAISRC in the News)
- MAISRC is a Watershed Hero, thanks to Minnehaha Creek Watershed District! (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Lessons learned at Christmas Lake (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Dr. McCartney's zebra mussel lab gains new team members (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Zebra mussel research finishes first field season (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Seminar Announcement: Zebra Mussels in Mille Lacs (Events)
- We don't have to panic over zebra mussels (MAISRC in the News)
- Zebra mussel research launched (MAISRC Newsletter)
- Job Posting: Undergraduate Field Assistant, zebra mussel research (Now Hiring)
- Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center Welcomes Dr. Michael A. McCartney (Press release)
- Looking for a new method to fight invasive species (MAISRC in the News)
- Job Posting: Dreissenid Mussel Biologist (Now Hiring)