Zebra, quagga, and native mussel research efforts on the St. Croix Scenic Riverway and Apostle Islands National Lakeshore
At the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, researchers will collect zebra mussel veliger samples from throughout the riverway and analyze them to determine population and reproduction dynamics.
At the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, researchers will survey the area to determine the distribution and density of both quagga mussels and zebra mussels. Individuals of both species will be collected and genetic analysis will be conducted in order to determine the source populations. Researchers will also sample calcium ion concentrations to assess the potential for establishment and growth of invasive mussels. Lastly, researchers will revisit native mussel beds that were surveyed in 1992 to assess changes of these sensitive native species in the face of invasive mussels, climate change, and other impacts.